عنوان مقاله [English]
This article examines the responses of the rural poor, both settled peasants and pastoral nomads, to the upheavals unleashed in the Iranian countryside by Riza Shah’s adoption of a programme of authoritarian state-building and rapid modernization. The article shows how, contrary to the conventional assumptions of rural passivity held by both Western scholarship and Iranian nationalism, peasant and nomad communities in fact generated a variety of active responses to the regime’s initiatives, both on their own account and in combination with other social forces, aimed at defending themselves and resisting unfavourable changes in their relations with landlords and state ofﬁcials. In the two decades between his arrival in power in 1921 via a coup d’etat and his abdication in 1941, Riza Shah presided over a period of profound political, economic and social change in Iran, unprecedented in its scope and in its pace. Throughout the country the rural poor, both the settled peasants and the pastoral nomads, were deeply affected by the upheavals unleashed by the regime’s choice of authoritarian state-building and modernization based on European models.