عنوان مقاله [English]
The 4th century CE, which began with the Constantinian shift and the religious revolution, is undoubtedly one of the most important centuries in the course of history, the origin of magnificent and profound changes in the Roman Empire and, consequently, in the Mediterranean world and its eastern neighbor, Iranian Empire. The Sassanids were not excluded from these changes by no means. Thus, the period the scholars have identified the Late Antiquity begins. The Greek Paedia - then called Paganism - more rapidly gave way to the Eastern culture and the oriental thoughts. Julian's last champion of the classical pagan world failed to save the old order. Iranshahr and its inhabitants played a role in these crucial events and had a serious impact. In such a way, the 3rd century CE (emergence of the Sasanians) should be considered a period of transition in the history of Iran. These two critical changes in the observer viewpoint (Rome) and the developments within the subject (Iranshahr) show the importance of studying the issue of the image of Iranshahr in the Roman sources of this period. Based on this research, in this period, the attitude and perception of the Romans about Iranshahr were divided into two classical-pagan and ecclesiastical-Christian factions, and one observes conflicts between these two currents of historiography.